Trusting people on the internet can be difficult. Especially when they tempt us with things we want. It’s important to understand the basics of trust online, and determine for yourself what risks are worth taking. You should use all the tools available to help you make an informed decision, and weigh it against how much you need the offered good.
A friend of mine asked the following question in a chat room today:
Friend: How do I determine if a video file is malicious? Friend: Put another way, is there a way to download a video file from a shady website and then make sure you only get the video file?
I felt obliged to give a detailed answer, but wanted the wording to come out right, and to save my answer for future reference.
The short answer is no – you can never be sure that all you’re getting is the video file.
However, we can choose to peel this union almost indefinitely. If we trust the site (read: already opened it), the first barrier has ultimately been broken, we must try to salvage the remains of our technical dignity. At this point, if the site was malicious (and it’s creators properly skilled, but let’s always assume that they are), you’ve nothing to fear anymore - your PC is thoroughly compromised.2
Whatever service the website may offer, both free and paid3, be it easy wins, Sildenafil, world-class pornography or audio and video content, there’s seldom such thing as a free lunch. Let’s split these websites into two categories: altruistic and egocentric.
This is a website that offers a service (or the illusion of one) in exchange for your personal information, your money, your well-being or some other good that you’d prefer not to lose. There’s some bias on which sites are in this category. This is a selection of services I consider egocentric:
This is a website that offers a service to improve the well-being of others, with no ill intentions or hidden fees. This service may be behind a paywall depending on your bias. Finding examples is left as an exercise for the reader.
Downloading a file from a website, altruistic or egocentric, must be done with caution. The file may not be the original file that the author intended to share (replaced on the server), or it may be altered on the way to your PC (man in the middle attack)4. Even if the file is the original it may still contain something malicious.
In theory5, if you don’t open/execute this file, it won’t be able to harm you PC. This is why so much money is funneled into antivirus software (Avast revenue is $893 million. NortonLifeLock $2.5 billion.) When the file reaches your computer, anti virus software will, if installed, look for a bunch of known malicious patterns in the file, and flag it if any of these exists. Some even go as far as removing it without asking, and denying your PC from ever running the file.
Remember our talk about altruistic and egocentrical websites? I’ll let you determine for yourself, which category Virustotal falls into. It’s a service that will scan a file or a URL for you with multiple anti virus tools to determine if any of them find anything.
If you’ve come this far, and the file hasn’t been flagged as malicious yet (and you’re not interested in reverse engineering it to determine ill-intent), your best bet is to weigh up pros and cons, and if the pros outweigh the cons, execute/open the file and share your findings with the world.
There are vulnerabilities in pure HTML like iframe viruses, tracking pixels et.c. but these are too technical for the audience of this piece. ↩︎
Again a grain of salt. Depending on your browser, operation system and antivirus software, you may have been protected from the website’s malicious code. ↩︎
Though paid services are often trusted more, they can be just as malicious. »I am an Egyptian Prince – please wire $200, and you will inherit $1.000.000«, »Buy this iPhone for $999, and we promise never to charge you anything ever again.« ↩︎
I don’t mind advertisement payed content, but it should be very clear about it, and you should preferably be able to pay to opt-out of the advertisements. ↩︎
And disregarding some edge cases like vulnerabilities in your file system, antivirus, thumbnail generation, et.c. ↩︎
Got questions or suggestions? Feel free to reach out.