Some of these are inspired by The Power of 10 Rules by Gerard J. Holzmann.
Avoid complex flow constructs, such as goto and recursion. Read more.
All loops must have fixed bounds. This prevents runaway code.
Avoid heap memory allocation
Restrict classes to a single printed page
Restrict the scope of data to the smallest possible
Abstain from using void (except at entry-point) in functions. A function is never void. All functions perform a transformation. Methods that mutate state should return void.
Aim for immutable data structures
Compile with all possible warnings; all warnings should be addressed before release of the software.
Minimize control flow complexity and “area under ifs”, favoring consistent execution paths and times over “optimally” avoiding unnecessary work.
Data dominates. If you’ve chosen the right data structures and organized things well, the algorithms will almost always be self-evident.
Data structures, not algorithms, are central to programming.
Use good descriptive names
Exceptions are for exceptional cases
Cover all cases in your domain model
The best performance improvement is the transition from the nonworking state to the working state.
Spend more time on the right abstraction
Make a domain model beforehand
Exceptions should be used in exceptional (unrecoverable) cases.
Understand design patterns. Known when to use design patterns.
Abstractions often present themselves as duplicate code.
Stay below 80 characters.
Stay below 72 characters.
Avoid leaky abstractions. Who’s responsible when it fails?
Sometimes (a -> b -> c) can be written as (a -> c), or ((a -> b) -> c) or (a -> (b -> c)).
Design with optionals or design without. Not both. A class can’t have “either-or” field.
A function should never accept a bool argument. Be precatious about bool. Bool is a type that should only be used in conditionals.
Mutable data structures are inherently not thread-safe. Immutable data structures are inherently thread-safe.
Use small scopes.
Have a single source of truth
Got questions or suggestions? Feel free to reach out.